Sites et articles
Yoga dangers : yoga, kundalini awakening. Yogadangers.com.
Aetna InteliHealth. Les information ci-dessous ont été préparées par l'équipe des professionnelles de Natural Standard, basé sur une revue systématique d'articles scientifiques. Le matériel a été revu par la Faculté de Médecine de Harvard et l'édition finale approuvée par Natural Standard.
"Dangers potentiels. Ce qui suit a rarement été rapporté : -Dommages aux nerfs ou aux disques vertébraux - Causé par des postures prolongées, impliquant quelquefois les jambes. -Dommage à l’œil, vision trouble, y compris l’aggravement du glaucome -Causé par la pression croissante à l'oeil avec les positions sur la tête. -Accident vasculairecérébrale ou blocage de vaisseaux sanguins - Causé par la diminution du flot du sang au cerveau ou d’autres parties du corps dus aux postures. Il y a un cas rapporté où une femme s’est présentée avec un pneumothorax (de l’air autour du poumon ce qui est potentiellement dangereux) causé par une technique de respiration de yoga appelée Kapalabhati pranayama. Il y a un autre rapport sur une adolescente qui est morte d’une obstruction de la respiration associée avec le yoga de bouche-à-bouche (dans lequel la personne respire dans la bouche d’une autre personne en utilisant des techniques de respiration du yoga). Cependant, un barbiturique à action prolongée (qui peut causer la diminution de la respiration) a pu être partiellement en cause. Des cheilitis chroniques (inflammation des lèvres) et du reflux persistant ont été rapportés par les instructeurs de yoga mais avec une relation qui n’est pas claire. Les personnes avec une maladie du disque, des artères du cou fragiles ou qui souffrent d’athérosclérose, à risque de caillots du sang, de pression du sang extrêmement haute ou basse, de glaucome, de détachement rétinien, de problèmes d’oreille, d’ostéoporoses sévère ou de spondylose cervicale devrait éviter certaines postures de yoga. Certaines techniques de respiration du yoga devraient être évitées chez les gens avec une maladie du coeur ou des poumons. Certains experts recommandent la prudence chez les personnes avec un historique de désordres psychotiques (comme la schizophrénie), parce qu'il y a un risque d'aggraver les symptômes, bien que ceci n’ait pas été clairement démontré dans les études." [Traduction automatique] [Citation originale]
Hot Yoga Risks. Do Heated Rooms for Yoga Pose Risks? Suite 101.com. January 21, 2010.
Spiritual Practices Can Trigger Psychosis. Suite 101.com. January 18, 2011.
Neck Pain and Head Stands in Yoga, Inversion Dangers Suite 101.com. January 9, 2011.
Medical Risks of Yoga: Stroke, Vision, Heart, and More. Suite 101.com. October 24, 2010.
Dangers of hot yoga. Charlotte Louise Nystrom. http://www.helium.com/.
"News reports have recently covered several events in which people have been injured, or lost their lives, participating in hot yoga sessions."
Hot Yoga or Yoga in Heated Environment can be Dangerous ! Yogacharya Vishwas Mandlik (Vice Chancellor) Yoga University India & Dr.Sujit Chandratreya (MD, DNB, DM, Endocrinologist & Diabetologist). www.yogapoint.com.Yoga Done Wrong Can Have Adverse Effect on your Health! www.yogabasicsplus.net by admin. 29, 2010.
Nath, Samir. (1998). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Buddhism. Vol. 1. Sarup & Sons. New Delhi.
Contraindications of Yoga. Marie Carrico. IDEA Health & Fitness Source, Nov-Dec 1998, pp.34-43.
"Le Yoga a vraiment des pièges et des dangers, comme n'importe quelle étude occulte. L'étudiant sérieux devrait idéalement travailler sous la surveillance d'un gourou ou autre enseignant. Les dangers du yoga sont l'introversion extrême, l'hédonisme spirituel, la régression (particulièrement avec des novices non préparés) et la fixation émotionnelle sur le gourou." [Traduction automatique] [Citation originale]
Le yoga : des étirements pour la santé. sante.canoe.com
"The danger in working with an untrained yoga teacher lies in the unrecognized power of the practices to bring about the uncontrolled released of fears, illnesses, sexual attachment and terrifying archetypal formations from the unconscious, just like the opening of Pandora's box."
Yoga side effects. Yoga DVD guru. Yogadvdguru.com. mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org
"Quels sont les risques? Bien que dans le yoga les élèves s'efforcent de glisser de manière fluide d'une posture à l'autre, des blessures peuvent se produire. Les risques possibles comprennent : le déchirement de cartilages, un claquage musculaire ou des entorses, des douleurs au cou et au dos."
Yoga not for children. American Yoga Association. Référé dans Hindu Samaj Critiques dans Yoga - Conflicts With Religion. LifeDivine. November 03, 2008.
"What is Yoga : The term Yoga is derived from the Sanskrit root ‘yug’ which means ‘to join’. Its signify union between the individual soul (jivatma) and the universal soul (paramatma). Yoga is the Science that teaches the technique of joining the human spirit with God which is the Divine Science that separates the Jiva from the exceptional world of sense objects and relates him with the Ananta Ananda (Infinite Bliss), Parama Shanti (Supreme Peace), joy of an Akhanda character and Power that are intrinsic quality of the Absolute." (...) "Les effets secondaires du yoga ne sont pas toujours physique. L'instabilité mentale peut aussi être un effet secondaire d'avoir pratiqué trop de yoga ou de façon incorrecte. Certains des effets négatifs et sévères peuvent inclure la pseudo mort, la pseudo psychose, de la confusion, l'augmentation de l'anxiété, des attaques de panique, des comportements suicidaires, de la dépression, des envies d'homicide et de mutilation » . Yoga DVD guru. Headaches, temporary blindness, sexual pains, and social issues may also arise. A combination of these symptoms when caused by yoga is typically what is known as Kundalini Syndrome, which stems from performing Kundalini yoga poses incorrectly or too often."
Religion Journal; Yoga in Aspen Public Schools Draws Opposition. Mindy Sink, New York Times, Saturday, February 8, 2003.
"Yoga exercises are not recommended for children under 16 because their bodies’ nervous and glandular systems are still growing, and the effect of Yoga exercises on these systems may interfere with natural growth."
“Officials with the American Yoga Association said they were less concerned with philosophy and religion than physiology and cautioned against allowing children under 16 to practice yoga because they believe that their growth may be affected.”
Mahabir, Deolal. Yoga: Hints and cautions.
"A caution from one alternative medicine site warns that meditation instruction can cause physiological or psychological harm - such as: mania, psychosis, hallucination, depression and suicidal tendency, nervous breakdown, sudden surge of of heart rates, chronic pain, and split personalities. Yoga is implicated - as are, certain religious types of meditation and incorrect hypnosis. (link)"
Includes cautions regarding 1) postures that increase abdominal pressures, 2) inverted postures, 3) hypertension, and 4) low back problems.
Contraindications of Yoga practices - general principles
- Physically demanding exercises and pranayama with long internal breath retention should be avoided in most generalised acute conditions, e.g. infectious diseases.
- Inverted asanas including Padahastasana should be avoided in glaucoma, inflammatory diseases in the head region and severe hypertension.
- Forward bending asanas can be harmful for people with serious problems in the lumbar spine. Twisting asanas (especially in upright position, such as Ardha Matsyendrasana) should be performed carefully or omitted in people with spinal problems.
- Joints which are not healthy should not be weighted down or burdened. Even Surya Namaskar may be too much for somebody with knee problems, not to speak about Sirshasana in people with weak or injured cervical spine.
- The pressure in the abdomen should not be increased in cases of inflammatory and other acute abdominal diseases.
- Long periods of meditation and Yoga Nidra are not without risk for same people with severe mental problems such as schizophrenia or persons disturbed after the abuse of hallucinogenic and stimulant drugs or cannabis.
- The therapeutic effects of Yoga should not be overemphasised in health problems which can be treated by a physician in a safe and effective way.
Yoga done wrong can be dangerous and can cause adverse effects on your overall health. Some of these side effects as are follows: Adversely effecting your muscles and cause heavy pain and internal bleeding. Some yoga poses can even lead to fracture or ruptures of delicate bones. This case is especially true if you have delicate or brittle bones. Ruptures like these can take months to heal and might sometimes even need surgical intervention. Some yoga poses can even lead to adverse gastric problems in some individuals. Most people complain gastric symptoms to be associated with hatha yoga postures. This is especially true if you do not perform all yoga asanas in a particular sequence. Some of the yoga poses are so complex that even experts don't understand them properly. For instance the kundalini yoga. Yoga poses like these done wrong can have adverse effect on you mentally. This is known as the kundalini syndrome. The possible side effects on kundalini syndrome are pseudo death, psychosis, pseudo psychosis, confusion, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, sadness, suicidal thoughts, urges to self-mutilate, homicidal urges, arrhythmia (irregular heart beat), exacerbation of prior or current mental illness, insomnia, inability to hold a job, inability to talk, inability to drive, sexual pains, temporary blindness, and headaches. Even if you practise yoga under a instructor, chances are that he or she is not fully aware of the techniques and might give you wrong instructions. So you need to be super careful if you even consider attempting these advanced yoga forms.
“It is an established fact that yoga – at least in the form that has become pervasive today, viz. Hatha yoga and Kundalini yoga – may release and possibly create psychotic states in the mind of the practitioner, withdrawing his or her interest from the outer world in ways reminiscent of the kind of psychosis called autism.”
McCall, Timothy. Doctor’s call: Should you discuss your yoga routine with your physician?
Yoga Journal, Jan/Feb 2004, p. 30.
Discusses a lot of contraindications for Yoga and the possible restriction of movement that may be necessary following injury.
"...one doctor from the Beth Israel Medical Centre in New York who, earlier this year, told a British journalist that he saw up to five Bikram-related injuries a week, a result, apparently, of stretching muscles too far beyond their resting lengths."
“No pain, no gain” mantra won’t work with yoga: Injuries on the rise as practice goes mainstream. Christopher Heredia. San Francisco Chronicle , August 3, 2003.“It’s the reality of living in a physical body in a complex world: sometimes we hurt, and sometimes we are ill. Maybe your yoga practice has reduced the frequency of everyday aches or illnesses, but even the most dedicated yogis get injured or sick sometimes. Sometimes, the practice of yoga produces an injury. A yoga injury can seem like a betrayal: How could something so good have hurt us? Whether you have a mild injury caused by carelessness or ambition in your yoga practice, or are recovering from an illness that makes your regular strenuous yoga practice seem like
torture, write yourself an individualized yoga prescription . . .”
Dr. James G. Garrick, an orthopedic surgeon and director of the Center for Sports Medicine at St. Francis Hospital in San Francisco, said his clinic saw 39 patients with yoga injuries in 2002, up from 11 in 2001. Most of the injuries patients suffered were to the knee, followed by lower back and shoulder. The injuries result from people trying to stretch their bodies into difficult poses that are beyond their physical limitations. "The last couple of years we've been seeing a dramatic increase in the number of people injured doing yoga," Garrick said. "It's frightened us."
“. . . as teachers, we must be very careful with certain pranayama practices. Bhastrika pranayama (often known as ‘Breath of Fire’) can damage or even destroy the nervous system. I’ll never forget a woman who came to me for legal advice when I was practicing law. She was extremely agitated, constantly distracted, and couldn’t finish a thought or a sentence. I learned that her nervous system was burnt out from years of practicing pranayama improperly, specifically bhastrika and kapalabhati (Skull-shining breath). When an excess of pranic energy floods the nervous system, it is like a balloon that’s filled with more air than it has the strength to contain. The nervous system is shattered and severe mental trauma can result. The body must be properly prepared with years of asana (especially backbends) to safely receive and contain the power of prana.
“And there are other ways to harm our students with the practice. For instance, the nervous system is agitated by jerky movements. This includes trembling during a pose by working too hard. Remind your students that there is no virtue in holding poses too long, for the benefits quickly unravel and turn into detriments. I have heard some teachers say to their students, ‘Shake it out!’ and encourage their students to shake themselves after intense poses to release tension. This misses the point. It is far better to be still and melt the tension with awareness.”
Kundalini Yoga - Awakening the kundalini energy. ABC-of-yoga.com.Discomfort. You should come down from Sirsasana (Headstand) or Sarvangasana (Shoulderstand) if there is pressure or discomfort in your head, eyes, ears, neck, or throat.
Cervical spondylitis. Characterized by reduced disc space between the cervical vertebrae, bony spur formations, a loss of the lordotic (normal) curve of the cervical spine, and numbness and tingling in the hands or feet due to nerve compression.
Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and/or excess weight. According to Ralph Laforge, static inverted poses can pose problems for those with coronary disease because they "place undue pressure on the chambers and valves of the heart, which in turn places undue stress on the already compromised coronary circulation." If you have high blood pressure, the baroreceptor mechanism which protects the brain from an excessive surge of blood may possibly be compromised in inversions.
Diabetes and/or insulin resistance. According to Laforge, virtually every adult with type II diabetes has coronary disease, or "silent ischemia." The internal pressure on the arterial walls from blood volume changes can result in cardiovascular
complications.Glaucoma, detachment of the retina, or extreme nearsightedness (retinal detachment is more common if one is extremely nearsighted). Unlike the brain, the retinal veins of the eyes might not be protected from a sudden onrush of blood by inverting. If your eyes become repeatedly bloodshot from inverting, you should consult a teacher or medical professional.Discharge or infections of the ear, sinus infections, and the flu (although inversions are recommended to hasten recovery from the common cold).Pregnancy past the first trimester, although this can vary greatly depending on your familiarity and ease with inversions. Some women find that supported Shoulderstand with a chair or Viparita Karani can be of benefit well into pregnancy.
"Of the above mentioned methods, the last one is said to be the most important. Trying to awaken your Kundalini by force and without the aid of a guru can be dangerous. This can result in some symptoms such as: mental confusion, headache or the feeling of something heavy in your head, psychosis, intense mood swings, epilepsy or other involuntary body movements, stress, depression, irregular breathing, immoral behavior. "
The possibility of adverse effects
"According to many teachers of meditation, and the school of Transpersonal Psychology, it is not considered wise to engage in contemplative practices, such as Kundalini yoga, without the guidance of a credible teacher, or without thorough foreknowledge of the chosen spiritual path. Many spiritual teachers and psychologists consider any intense contemplative or spiritual practice without the support of a cultural context, or without the support of thorough psychological and physical preparation, to be unfortunate, or even dangerous. Both Bogart (1991) and Lukoff (1998) notes the growing occurrence of meditation-related problems in western contemplative life (for more information on this particular topic see the section on adverse effects of Meditation)."
"When Kundalini awakening happens to people who are not on a spiritual path, the experience can leave them fragile and fragmented." "While the enormous changes associated with a spiritual awakening may demand psychological and social adjustments, they are not in themselves necessarily indicative of illness." (see the list of symptoms)
"Inability to follow strict instructions of the Master, or practicing of methods without a living and self-realized master, can lead to a series of psychic disturbances and sometimes even mental damage. The conditions are known in psychiatric circles as Kundalini Syndrome."
Kundalini syndrome. Wikipedia.
Symptomatology. "Researchers affiliated with the fields of transpersonal psychology and near-death studies (see references below) have suggested some common criteria that describe Kundalini problems, of which the most prominent feature is a feeling of energy or heat rushing up the spine . Other sensory and motor symptoms may include: the feeling of cranial pressures, the perception of inner sounds ,
experiences of inner lights , vibrating or tickling sensations in the lower back , tachycardia (rapid heart rate), changes in breathing, spontaneous bodily movements , sensations of heat or cold moving through the body , localized bodily pain that starts and stops abruptly, vibrations and itching under the skin, and unusual, or intense, sexual sensations . Mental and affective symptoms include: fear , anxiety , depersonalization , intense positive or negative emotions , spontaneous slowing or speeding of thoughts , spontaneous trance states, experiencing oneself as larger than the physical body , and experiences of paranormal consciousness ." "Summary of known problems: Death, pseudo death, psychosis, pseudo psychosis, confusion, anxiety, panic attacks, depression, sadness, suicidal thoughts, urges to self-mutilate, homicidal urges, arrhythmia (irregular heart beat), exacerbation of prior or current mental illness, insomnia, inability to hold a job, inability to talk, inability to drive, sexual pains, temporary blindness, uticaria or rash, and headaches   "
"Kundalini teachers commonly caution those interested in kundalini yoga to practice only under the guidance of an experienced teacher. Uncontrolled kundalini awakening has been reported to produce symptoms such as the following : mental confusion, psychosis, gastrointestianal disordersitching, burning, or involuntary twitching, sexual dysfunction, severe mood swings, egotism, ringing or hissing sounds in ears, paranormal activity, immoral behavior.
Extraits tirés d'un plan de cours sur le kundalini yoga. "L'ancienne tradition psycho spirituelles indienne du Kundalini Yoga considère l'énergie comme un aspect dynamique, immanent de la conscience. Cette énergie est vénérée comme la déesse Kundalini-Shakti, le pouvoir cosmique féminin, formant l'union avec Shiva, Dieu, la qualité transcendante mâle de la pure conscience." (...) "Ce cours examinera également les problèmes liés à l'ouverture rapide de la Kundalini connu sous le nom de crise Kundalini, à comprendre le sujet spécial des crises spirituelles liées à la Kundalini et à apprendre quelques notions pour travailler avec elle." [Traduction automatique] [Citation originale].
"Practicing kundalini may be dangerous for those who start learning it abruptly without any guidance from the yoga master or are not serious in doing it. This will surely put them in trouble and they may face very serious problems of heart attack, dehydration or sometimes torn cartilage." "The negative problems are just like ghosts that keep on disturbing the mind of the seekers. These kinds of problem are always tormenting our unconscious mind which is very dangerous for the yoga performers. The energy in the unconscious mind try to empower the ways to come out strongly which should be checked properly."